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What You Should Know About Trademark Infringement in Thailand 您應該知道的泰國商標侵權

In Thailand, the owner or a Thai registered trademark licensee is authorized by trademark owner to file trademark infringement to Central Intellectual Property and International Trade Court (“IP&IT Court”). When a trademark infringement occurs, its registered trademark owner or a licensee can initiate administrative and judicial action, and such judicial action includes Civil and Criminal litigation claims. When a judicial action is filed, Criminal litigation claim is among the majority because it is cost-effective, quick, and efficient to compensate the loss. For example, the maximum penalty for trademark forgery is four years' imprisonment and a fine of THB 400,000 under section 108 of Trademark Act B.E.2534.


泰國註冊商標所有人或是被授權人可以向中央智慧財產權及國際貿易法院(“IP&IT Court”) 提起商標侵權訴訟。當發生商標侵權,註冊商標所有人或被授權人可以提起行政訴訟和司法訴訟,司法訴訟包括民事和刑事訴訟。當提起司法訴訟,刑法佔多數,因為具有成本效益、快速和有效的補救措施。例如,根據《佛曆2534年泰國商標法》第108條,商標侵權的最高刑罰是四年監禁和 40 萬泰銖罰款。


The procedure between trademark infringement in civil and criminal claims are different. Following are brief introduction:

商標侵權的民事訴訟和刑事訴訟的程序不同,以下是簡要介紹:

Criminal Claim

刑事訴訟


The statute of limitation depends on the nature of infringement and maximum penalties under the Trademark Act or the Criminal Code. Generally speaking, the statute of limitation is 10 years for offences punishable by imprisonment between 1-3 years.[1]

訴訟時效取決於侵權的性質以及《泰國商標法》或《泰國刑法》規定的最高刑罰。一般而言,可處以1-3年監禁的罪行的時效為 10 年。


In addition, the timeframe is normally 1-2 years, depending on other factors of the case.

另外,時間一般為1-2年,視案件的其他因素而定。


Civil Claim

民事訴訟


Civil claim can be filed 10 years from the date on which the offense occurs or 1 year from the day when such offense is known to the trademark owner, and the person bound to make compensation became known to the injured person.[2]

民事訴訟可以自犯罪發生之日起 10 年或自受害人知悉侵權人犯罪之日起1年內提起。


In addition, the timeframe is normally 1-2 years, depending on other factors of the case.

另外,時間一般為1-2年,視案件的其他因素而定。


Please be noted that trademark infringement case judged by IP&IT Court can be appealed to Supreme Court by either party, within 1 month of the court decision.

請注意,IP&IT法院判決的商標侵權案件,任何一方均可在判決後 1 個月內向最高法院上訴。


It is also possible to prevent imminent or further trademark infringement. There are 2 types of preliminary injunction as follows, but they are difficult to obtain:

也可以防止即將發生或進一步動作的商標侵權。有以下兩種臨時禁制令,但很難取得:


Ø Conventional type under Civil Procedural Code

《泰國民事訴訟法》的常規類型

Ø Provisional injunction under regulations of the IP&IT Court

依據IP&IT法院規定的臨時禁制令


It requires two conditions under Civil and Procedural Code, which are:

《泰國民事訴訟法》規定有兩個情況:


Ø Clear and convincing evidence that a party has infringed another party’s trademark rights;

明確且令人信服的證據表明一方侵犯了另一方的商標權;

Ø There must be irreparable damages’ proof if the relief is not granted timely.

如不及時救濟,必須有無法彌補的損害證明。


It requires two conditions under the IP&IT Court, which are:

IP&IT法院規定有兩個情況:


Ø Reasonable grounds and sufficient reasons

合理充分的理由

Ø Nature of the incurred damage cannot be resituated by financial measures or any other form of indemnity; or

所受損害的性質不能通過金錢或任何其他形式的賠償來彌補;或

Ø The prospective defendant is unable or difficult to compensate the applicant for the damage

準被告不能或難以就損害賠償申請人


There are several types of trademark infringement damages recognized under the law, which are:

法律承認的商標侵權損害賠償有幾種類型,分別為:


Ø Compensation Damages, also known as Actual Damages: It is based on the proven damages, loss, or injury suffered by the plaintiff.

補償性損害賠償金,又稱實際賠償:基於原告遭受已證實的損害、損失或傷害。

Ø Nominal Damages: This type of damage cannot be measured and proved.

象徵性損害賠償:這種類型的損害無法衡量和證明。

Ø Punitive Damages: It is applied to the prevailing party in addition to compensatory damages when the defendant’s action is willful, malicious and oppressive.

懲罰性損害賠償:當被告行為是故意、惡意和壓迫性,除了賠償賠償,並提供給勝訴方。

Ø Statutory Damages: It is applied to where it is difficult to determine the exact value of harm or infringement to the injured person.

法定損害賠償:在難以確定受害人的傷害或侵權的確切價值的情況下適用。


The court regularly grants injunctions against further trademark infringement. Besides injunction relief, the court may also award monetary recovery which includes damages, the defendant’s profits and costs of action. However, in Thailand, there is no provision indicating in the Trademark Act determining the types of damages that the plaintiff can claim and the court normally award in infringement case. Normally, the court applies trademark law and civil tort law to trademark infringement issues. But with regard to compensation, the court applies Section 438 of Civil and Commercial Code to decides the damages.

法院會定期發布禁止進一步商標侵權的禁令。除了禁制令,法院還可以判給金錢賠償,其中包括損害賠償、被告的利潤和訴訟費用。但是,《泰國商標法》沒有規定原告可以要求的損害賠償類型以及法院通常在侵權案件中作出的裁決。通常法院對商標侵權問題適用《泰國商標法》和民事侵權法。但法院在賠償方面適用《泰國商標法民商法》第438條規定的損害賠償。

[1] Article 272-274 of the Criminal Code. [2] Section 448 of the Civil and Commercial Code.


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