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What You Should Know About Trademark Infringement in Thailand 您應該知道的泰國商標侵權

In Thailand, the owner or a Thai registered trademark licensee is authorized by trademark owner to file trademark infringement to Central Intellectual Property and International Trade Court (“IP&IT Court”). When a trademark infringement occurs, its registered trademark owner or a licensee can initiate administrative and judicial action, and such judicial action includes Civil and Criminal litigation claims. When a judicial action is filed, Criminal litigation claim is among the majority because it is cost-effective, quick, and efficient to compensate the loss. For example, the maximum penalty for trademark forgery is four years' imprisonment and a fine of THB 400,000 under section 108 of Trademark Act B.E.2534.

泰國註冊商標所有人或是被授權人可以向中央智慧財產權及國際貿易法院(“IP&IT Court”) 提起商標侵權訴訟。當發生商標侵權,註冊商標所有人或被授權人可以提起行政訴訟和司法訴訟,司法訴訟包括民事和刑事訴訟。當提起司法訴訟,刑法佔多數,因為具有成本效益、快速和有效的補救措施。例如,根據《佛曆2534年泰國商標法》第108條,商標侵權的最高刑罰是四年監禁和 40 萬泰銖罰款。

The procedure between trademark infringement in civil and criminal claims are different. Following are brief introduction:


Criminal Claim


The statute of limitation depends on the nature of infringement and maximum penalties under the Trademark Act or the Criminal Code. Generally speaking, the statute of limitation is 10 years for offences punishable by imprisonment between 1-3 years.[1]

訴訟時效取決於侵權的性質以及《泰國商標法》或《泰國刑法》規定的最高刑罰。一般而言,可處以1-3年監禁的罪行的時效為 10 年。

In addition, the timeframe is normally 1-2 years, depending on other factors of the case.


Civil Claim


Civil claim can be filed 10 years from the date on which the offense occurs or 1 year from the day when such offense is known to the trademark owner, and the person bound to make compensation became known to the injured person.[2]

民事訴訟可以自犯罪發生之日起 10 年或自受害人知悉侵權人犯罪之日起1年內提起。

In addition, the timeframe is normally 1-2 years, depending on other factors of the case.


Please be noted that trademark infringement case judged by IP&IT Court can be appealed to Supreme Court by either party, within 1 month of the court decision.

請注意,IP&IT法院判決的商標侵權案件,任何一方均可在判決後 1 個月內向最高法院上訴。

It is also possible to prevent imminent or further trademark infringement. There are 2 types of preliminary injunction as follows, but they are difficult to obtain:


Ø Conventional type under Civil Procedural Code


Ø Provisional injunction under regulations of the IP&IT Court


It requires two conditions under Civil and Procedural Code, which are:


Ø Clear and convincing evidence that a party has infringed another party’s trademark rights;


Ø There must be irreparable damages’ proof if the relief is not granted timely.


It requires two conditions under the IP&IT Court, which are:


Ø Reasonable grounds and sufficient reasons


Ø Nature of the incurred damage cannot be resituated by financial measures or any other form of indemnity; or


Ø The prospective defendant is unable or difficult to compensate the applicant for the damage


There are several types of trademark infringement damages recognized under the law, which are:


Ø Compensation Damages, also known as Actual Damages: It is based on the proven damages, loss, or injury suffered by the plaintiff.


Ø Nominal Damages: This type of damage cannot be measured and proved.


Ø Punitive Damages: It is applied to the prevailing party in addition to compensatory damages when the defendant’s action is willful, malicious and oppressive.


Ø Statutory Damages: It is applied to where it is difficult to determine the exact value of harm or infringement to the injured person.


The court regularly grants injunctions against further trademark infringement. Besides injunction relief, the court may also award monetary recovery which includes damages, the defendant’s profits and costs of action. However, in Thailand, there is no provision indicating in the Trademark Act determining the types of damages that the plaintiff can claim and the court normally award in infringement case. Normally, the court applies trademark law and civil tort law to trademark infringement issues. But with regard to compensation, the court applies Section 438 of Civil and Commercial Code to decides the damages.


[1] Article 272-274 of the Criminal Code. [2] Section 448 of the Civil and Commercial Code.

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