What You Should Know About Commercial Litigations in Thailand 您應該知道的泰國商業訴訟
Commercial litigation is a legal method of resolving disputes between individuals or companies which involves contracts disputes, debt collections, corporate controversies, intellectual property contests, etc. In Thailand, the courts will normally encourage settlement of disputes such as Alternative Dispute Resolution (“ARD”), similar to arbitration or conciliation.
商業訴訟是解決個人或公司之間爭議的法律方法，涉及合約爭議、債務催收、公司爭議、知識產權爭議等。在泰國，法院通常會通過採用替代性爭議解決方案以鼓勵和平解決爭議 (“ARD”) 如仲裁或調解。
The three main institutions dealing with commercial arbitration in Thailand are Thai Arbitration Institute (“TAI”), Thailand Arbitration Center, (“THAC”) and Commercial Arbitration Committee of the Board of Trade. For more information of arbitration in Thailand, please refer to our previous articles “Arbitration in Thailand Part 1” and “Arbitration in Thailand Part II” at https://0rz.tw/2oEhQ and https://0rz.tw/tMO2V.
In the event of resolving disputes in arbitration and the arbitrator has made the award that one of the parties is not satisfied with the outcome of the award, that party can file statement of objection with court of competent jurisdiction within 90 days from the date that they received copy of the award from the arbitrator.
如果在仲裁審判的情況下已作出仲裁裁決， 並且其中一方似乎對該決定的結果不滿意，該方可以在收到仲裁員的裁決副本之日起 90 天內向有管轄權的法院提出異議請求。
However, if both parties do not agree to use the arbitration process to resolve commercial dispute, then each party can file lawsuit to court of competent jurisdiction, for the court to proceed with the process of resolving the commercial dispute. Unless otherwise agreed by both parties, a party who intends to challenge arbitrator shall, within 15 days becoming aware of the appointment of the arbitrator or in circumstances that give rise to justifiable doubts of his/her impartiality, independence or qualifications, to file a statement stating the grounds of the challenge with the arbitral tribunal.
但是，如果雙方不同意使用仲裁程序解決商業糾紛，則各方可以向管轄權的法院提起訴訟，由法院繼續解決商業糾紛的程序。除非雙方另有約定，一方當事人對仲裁員提出異議的，應當在得知仲裁員的任命或者對其公正性、獨立性或資格有正當懷疑的情況下，應當在 15 日內提出聲明。 向仲裁庭陳述質疑的理由。
If a party is a foreigner, the party can hire a lawyer in Thailand to present in court with Power of Attorney.
Following is typical sequence of commercial litigation procedure:
Ø A plaintiff files a lawsuit (the plaintiff can authorize another person to act on his/her behalf);
Ø The court accepts the case and serves the complaint and summons to the defendant;
Ø The defendant files an argument to the complaint;
Ø Hold a settlement meeting;
Ø If there is no agreement at the settlement, the parties proceed to a pretrial meeting which specific issues they believe need to the resolved;
Ø The court arranges a trial date;
Ø Both parties submit closing statements;
Ø The court announces the judgement.
The length of the court procedure depends on complexity of the case. In general, the first instance civil court usually takes around one or one and a half year from the filing date of the lawsuit to the court’s judgment.