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Bankruptcy Proceedings in Thailand Part I 泰國破產程序 第一篇

Factors resulting Bankruptcy Litigation 破產起訴原因

In accordance to Section 7 of Bankruptcy Act, B.E. 2483, there are 3 criteria required to bring bankruptcy litigation:

依據佛曆2483年(西元1940年)《泰國破產法》第7條規定,起訴原因包含3個:

1. Person has less assets than liabilities. 個人負債大於資產。

2. The debtor is domiciled in Thailand; or 債務人居住在泰國;或

3. A debtor conducts business in Thailand, either by himself or by an agent while the creditor files bankruptcy petition or within one year before that.

當債權人聲請破產或在這一年之前,債務人本身或代理人在泰國做生意。

1. Rules for filing bankruptcy cases to the court 向法院提交破產請求的規定

The creditor may initiate a bankruptcy action against the debtor under Section 9:

債權人可依據第9條聲請債務人破產:

1.1 Person has less assets than liabilities; 個人負債大於資產;

1.2 The debtor is a natural person is indebted to one or several plaintiff creditors in the amount of not less than one million baht or a debtor who is a legal entity is indebted to one or more plaintiff creditors in an amount of not less than two million baht; and

自然人債務人欠一個或多個原告債權人不少於一百萬泰銖或法人債務人欠一個或多個原告債權人不少於兩百萬泰銖;和

1.3 The definite amount of such debt is determinable, whether the debt is due immediately or in the future.

無論其是否立即或未來到期,欠款的金額很明確。

2. Subject to Section 9, a secured creditor may institute a bankruptcy action against the debtor under Section 10 only if:

依據第10條規定,除第9條另有規定外,有擔保債權人僅在對債務人採取行動的情況下可提出破產保護:

2.1 The secured creditor is not prohibited from enforcing payment of the debtor against the debtor’s property in excess of the property given as security; and

有擔保債權人不被禁止強制執行債務清償對債務人的財產超過擔保的財產;及

2.2 The secured creditor makes a statement in the plaint that he shall, upon bankruptcy of the debtor, waive the security for the benefit of all creditors or makes an assessment of the security in the plaint and, after deduction of the amount of the debt therefrom, the deficit amounts to not less than one million baht in case of the debtor who is a natural person or amounts to not less than two million Baht in case of the debtor who is a juristic person.

有擔保債權人在訴狀中聲明,應在債務人破產時為所有債權人的利益放棄擔保或評估訴狀的擔保,並從原告扣除債務後,如債務人為自然人,赤字不少於一百萬泰銖、債務人為法人,債務不少於兩百萬泰銖。

The judge's bankruptcy ruling 法官的破產裁定

The court must consider the facts provided in Section 9 or Section 10 (Section 14).

法院必須考慮根據第9條及第10條提供的事實(第14條)。

Bankruptcy proceedings in court 法院破產程序

1. Accept a lawsuit, set a date for summons 受理訴訟,設定傳票日

2. Examine witnesses in court 在法院審問證人

3. Order for absolute receivership or dismissal of the case 絕對接管或將案件撤回的命令

4. Notify the Official Receiver in order for the Receiver to take the action as follows:

通知官方接管人,以便官方接管人採取以下行動:

4.1 Publication. 公告。

4.2 Notification of the judge's order. 通知法官的命令。

4.3 The plaintiff to deposit fees and expenses.原告押金及支出。

4.4 Inform the officers to seize, freeze and dispose of the seized property.

通知官員扣押、凍結和處置扣押的財產。

4.5 Submit a summon to the debtor for investigation. 向債務人提交傳票以進行調查。

4.6 Require the debtor to submit an explanation and a property account.

要求債務人提交說明和財產賬戶。

4.7 Receive a debt payment request - make an appointment to check the request.

收到債務償還請求-請求預約預約檢查時間。

4.8 First creditors’ meeting. 第一次債權人會議。

4.9 Report the results to the court. There are two separates situations:

向法院報告結果。有兩種情況:

4.9.1 In the case of a combination of debts is not approved reported to the court for bankruptcy judgment and schedule an open debtor inquiry.

如果是債務合併,不須向法院報告,以進行破產判決並安排公開債務人質

詢。

4.9.2 In the case that the compounding is approved by the meeting, reported requesting the court to investigate the debtor openly and consider the request for reconciliation.

如果會議同意和解,報告要求法院公開調查債務人並考慮和解請求。

5. In the case of the court sentenced the debtor to bankrupt, it will notify the Official Receiver to proceed further.

如果法院判債務人破產,會通知官方接管人進一步處理。

5.1 Publish the announcement of bankruptcy judgment. 公告法院破產判決。

5.2 Proceed to sell the confiscated property. 繼續出售沒收的財產。

6. The court scheduled an open examination of the debtor and informed the Official Receiver to proceed. 法院安排對債務人進行公開審查,並通知官方接管人繼續執行。

6.1 Announcement for an appointment of an inquiry. 宣布預約調查。

6.2 Notify creditors and debtors. 通知債權人及債務人。

6.3 Appoint a lawyer for the case. 委任律師。

7. The court examines the case and sends a copy to the Official Receiver.

法院對此案進行審查,並將副本發給官方接管人。

8. The court considers the debtor's compounding request, and will notify the Official Receiver to take the following actions:

法院考慮債務人的合約要求,並會通知官方接管人採取以下行動:

8.1 Notify creditors and debtors; 通知債權人及債務人;

8.2 Make a report to the court under Section 50. 根據第50條向法院報告。

9. Consider an order for the debtor's compounding request, and the court will notify the Official

Receiver to take the following actions:

考慮一項針對債務人和解請求的命令,法院會通知官方接管人採取以下行動:

9.1 Publication of announcement of court order. 公告法院判決。

9.2 Collect the debtor's money. 追討債務人的金錢。

9.3 Cancel the compromise if the debtor is in default. 如果債務人違約,取消和解。

9.4 Collect assets of the debtor. 追討債務人的資產。

9.5 Investigate a claim against property of other creditors.

調查對其他債權人財產的債權。

9.6 Revoke the transfer of property. 撤銷財產移轉。

9.7 Debt collection. 討債。

9.8 Investigate the request for debt repayment and report the opinion to the court.

調查償還債務的請求,並向法院報告意見。

9.9 Share assets for creditors. 債權人共享資產。

9.10 Request to extend the period of property division. 要求延長財產分割期限。

9.11 End the case. 案件結案。

9.12 A natural person adjudged bankrupt shall forthwith be discharged from bankruptcy upon the lapse of the three-year period as from the date of the adjudication of bankruptcy under Section 81/1.

依第81/1條規定,當破產裁定日起3年期限屆滿,被判定破產的自然人應立即解除破產。


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