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What You Should Know About Will and Inheritance in Thailand 您應該知道的泰國遺囑及遺產

At the end of one’s life, it is undeniable that the passed ones’ assets are still left and be inherited by heirs of that person. In practice, it is wise to make the Will in order to let the decedent manage the assets and to lessen the hassle of dividing the assets between the rightful heirs.

當一個人的生命結束時,不可否認的是所有已故者的財產仍會留下,並由此人的繼承人繼承。實際上明智的做法是訂立遺囑,由亡者管理資產並減少在合法繼承人之間分配資產的麻煩。


Under Thailand Civil and Commercial Code, the executor of an executor shall govern the estate of the passing one to let the rightful heir to receive their shares of the estate regardless of the Will is presented or not. As such, it can be determined into two situations where:

根據泰國民商法,無論是否訂立遺囑,遺囑執行人都應管轄亡者的遺產,讓合法繼承人獲得他們的遺產份額。因此,可以確定為兩種情況:


1. No Written Will

無書面遺囑


If the deceased does not make any official Will, the estate shall be separated equally amongst the tiers of “Rightful Heir” under Section 1629, and the rightful heir shall be as such:

如果亡者沒有訂立任何正式遺囑,根據第1629條,遺產應在“合法繼承人”的各個類別之間平分,合法繼承人應為:


1. Direct Child(ren) of the Deceased

亡者的直系子女

2. Parents of the Deceased

亡者的父母

3. Direct siblings of the Deceased (with the same Parents)

亡者的親生兄弟姊妹 (同父同母)

4. Indirect siblings of the Deceased (with the same Father)

亡者有一半血緣關係的兄弟姊妹(同父或同母)

5. Grandparents

祖父母

6. Uncles, Aunt

叔叔舅舅、姑姑阿姨


Moreover, Section 1635 permits the spouse of the Deceased to possess the same tier as the Direct Child of the deceased. The right to receive the inheritances of the spouse shall be discussed later on.

此外,第1635條允許亡者的配偶與亡者的直系子女為同等級的繼承人。配偶繼承遺產的權利將在以後討論。


However, it is not an equal split for all listed individuals. As presented in Section 1630, the law has laid down that, if the earlier tier, as stated previously, of the heirs are still alive, that alive heirs shall inherit all estate.

但是,並不是對所有列出的所有人均等分配遺產。第 1630 條法律規定,如果亡者在先等級的繼承人(如前所述)仍然在世,活著的繼承人應繼承所有財產。


If there are multiple individuals in the same tier, the estate shall be split amongst that tier of heirs equally. This does not cut the spouse’s right to receive inheritances whatsoever.

如果同一類別有多個繼承人,遺產應平分給該類別的繼承人。這不會削減配偶獲得任何遺產的權利。


[Example #1: if the Deceased has 2 children, no spouse, and 1 direct brother. By the virtue of Section 1630, the estate shall be split amongst 2 children 50% equally. The Direct brother will receive nothing.]

[舉例#1如果亡者有 2 個孩子、沒有配偶、有 1 個親生的兄弟。根據第 1630 條,遺產應平均分配給 2 個孩子 50%。親生的兄弟將一無所獲。]


The law also makes an exception, if the Parents of the deceased still exist, Parents shall receive the inheritances in a ratio as the children of the deceased will receive equally.

法律也規定例外,如果亡者的父母仍然健在,父母應依亡者子女平均獲得的比例獲得遺產。


[Example #2: if the deceased has 2 children, no spouse, parents of the deceased still alive, and 1 direct brother. By the virtue of Section 1630, the estate shall be split amongst 2 children and 2 alive parents of 25% equally on each rightful heir. The Direct brother still receives nothing.]

[舉例#2如果亡者有2個孩子、沒有配偶、亡者的父母仍然在世、有 1個親生的兄弟。根據第 1630 條,遺產應分配給 2 個孩子和 2 個在世的父母,每位合法繼承人均分 25%。親生的兄弟仍然沒有收到任何東西。]


1.2 Right of the Spouses of the Deceased

亡者配偶的權利

According to Section 1635, if the spouse of the deceased is still alive, he/she shall inherit the estate regardless of the tiers as mentioned earlier. However, the ratio of shares in the estate is different and NOT an equal split and shall be as such:

根據第1635 條,如果亡者的配偶仍然在世,不論上述類別應繼承遺產。但是獲得遺產的比例不同,並非均分,而是:


1.2.1 If, Children are still alive, the Equal share shall be split in a ratio equal to what children are entitled to.

如果子女仍然健在,應按照子女有權獲得的比例平分。


[Example #3: if the deceased has 2 children, 1 spouse, parents of the deceased still alive, and 1 direct brother. By the virtue of Section 1635, the estate shall be split amongst the spouse, 2 children, and 2 alive parents of 20% equally on each rightful heir. The Direct brother still receives nothing.]

[舉例#3: 如果亡者有2名孩子、1 名配偶、亡者的父母還健在、有 1個親生的兄弟。根據第 1635 條,遺產應由配偶、2 個孩子和 2 個在世的父母平均分配 20% 給每個合法繼承人。親生的兄弟仍然沒有收到任何東西。]


1.2.2 If the Direct Sibling is still alive OR the parent is still alive, the spouse will be inherited 50% of the deceased’s estate. The rest shall be split amongst the numbers of Parents and Direct Siblings.

如果親生的兄弟姐妹仍然健在父母仍然健在,配偶將繼承亡者遺產的 50%。其餘的應依照父母和親生的兄弟姐妹的人數均分。


1.2.3 If the Deceased has no children, no alive parents, and no direct siblings but an Indirect sibling or Uncle/Aunt still alive, the spouse will be inherited 1/3 of the deceased’s estate. This ratio also applied if no alive Uncle/Aunt but Grandparents are still alive.

如果亡者沒有孩子、沒有健在的父母、也沒有親生的兄弟姐妹,但有一個有一半血緣關係的兄弟姐妹或叔叔/阿姨仍然在世,配偶將繼承死者1/3的遺產。如果沒有健在的叔叔/阿姨但祖父母仍健在,這個比率也適用。


1.2.4 If no there is no rightful heir as stated in Section 1629, the Spouse shall inherit 100% of the estate.

如果沒有第1629條規定的合法繼承人,配偶應繼承 100% 的遺產。


2. Legally Certified Will is Existing

有合法遺囑


As per Section 1646, the Will shall be counted as the “Contract” which will be executed after the Estate owner is passed. The will can be made in 2 forms.

根據第1646條,遺囑應算作“合約”,將在遺產所有者過世後執行。遺囑可以有兩種形式。


2.1 Verbal Will

口頭遺囑


In the case where the estate owner could not execute the will as the circumstances does not allow the written Will to be formed, the Verbal Will can be executed with the presence of 2 witnesses. After the will is formed, the witnesses shall be presented at the District Office to ratify the Will. After the ratification, it is deemed that such Verbal Will is fully enforced after the death of the Estate Owner. If no ratification has been made, it shall be deemed void entirely and the process of inheritances of the deceased shall proceed as if the will is never made in the first place.

如果因情況不允許訂立書面遺囑而導致遺產所有人無法執行遺囑,則可以在 2 名見證人在場的情況下執行口頭遺囑。訂立遺囑後,見證人應到民政事務處核准遺囑。一旦核准後,即視為該口頭遺囑在屋主過世後完全生效。如果未被核准,遺囑將被視為完全無效,亡者的繼承過程將如同從未訂立遺囑進行。


In order to make the Ratification, Copy of the Estate Owner’s ID, House registrar, and 2 aforementioned witnesses must be presented at the District Office.

要使遺囑核准,必須在地區辦公室出示屋主身份影本、房屋登記和上述 2 名證人。


2.2 Written Will

書面遺囑


There are 3 ways to execute the Will, which are as followed:

執行遺囑有3種方式,分別如下:


2.2.1 Unofficial/Self-Written Will

非官方/自立遺囑


As per Book 6, Title 3 of the Thailand Civil and Commercial Code, the forms of the Will must be met which includes the Name of the Estate Owner, Date, and Signatures of the Estate Owner in order to be considered a Valid Will. This type of will have not required ratification, and validity shall be executed after the death of the estate owner.

根據《泰國民商法》第 6 卷第 3 篇,遺囑的格式必須符合規定,包括遺產所有人的姓名、日期和遺產所有人的簽名,才能被視為有效遺囑。此類遺囑無需核准,在遺產所有人去世後生效。


2.2.2 Official Will

官方遺囑


The most recommended way to fully executed the Will is to make such a will at the District Office. This type of will is called an “Official Will”.

完全執行遺囑的最推薦方式是在民政事務處立遺囑。這種類型的遺囑稱為“官方遺囑”。


Such will be made in front of Government Officials and will be fully executed after the death of the Estate Owner.

這將在政府官員面前進行,並將在遺產擁有人過世後全面執行。


In order to make the Official Will, an original and a Copy of the Estate Owner’s ID, Certification of ownership in the estate, and 2 witnesses must be presented at the District Office. In the case of the Estate, the owner is over 60 years old, Medical Certification is also required. The Fee shall be 50 THB per Official Will.

為了製作正式遺囑,必須在地區辦公室出示遺產擁有人身份證的正本及影本、遺產所有權證明以及 2 名證人。以遺產來說,遺產擁有人年滿60歲,還需要醫療證明。每份正式遺囑的費用為 50 泰銖。


2.2.3 Confidential Will

保密遺囑


The Confidential will shall only be opened after the Estate Owner is passed. No edits or summon of the wills can be made. It can either be made Official or Unofficial types of will.

保密遺囑只有在業主過世後才能開啟。不能對遺囑進行編輯或召集。可以是官方或非官方類型的遺囑。


In order to make the Confidential Will, an original and a Copy of the Estate Owner’s ID, a Copy of the House registrar, a Sealed envelope with the will inside, and 2 witnesses must be presented at the District Office.

為了製作保密遺囑,必須在地區辦公室出示遺產所有者身份證的正本及影本、房屋登記影本、裝有遺囑的密封信封以及 2 名證人。


Management of Estate after Death

過世後遺產管理


After the death of the Estate Owner, it is required by law that that Estate Manager shall be established by the Court order in order to legally executed the division of the Estate to the rightful heir. According to Section 1649, the Manager shall be established “As per the Will of the Deceased” which can be any person that the deceased wishes to manage the estate after death.

遺產持有人去世後,法律規定應根據法院命令設立一名遺產管理人,以便合法將遺產分配給合法繼承人。根據第 1649 條,管理人應“根據亡者的遺囑”成立,可以是亡者希望在過世後管理遺產的任何人。


If no will is presented or no text in the Will indicates anyone to be the Estate Manager, the rightful heir of the Deceased shall have the right to establish themselves as the manager by submitting the request to the Court and letting the Court order so.

如果沒有出示遺囑或遺囑沒有任何文字表明任何人將成為遺產管理人,亡者的合法繼承人有權通過向法院提交請求並讓法院下令來確立自己為遺產管理人。


Disposed of Rightful Heir

決定合法繼承人


In the Law, there are 2 primary ways that the Rightful Heir can be disposed of which is:

在法律有兩種​​主要方式可以決定合法繼承人,即:


1. By Will

遺囑


If the Estate Owner wishes to dispose his/her rightful heir, such statement shall be made in the Will or made into documents and submitted a such document to the District Offices. Such persons’ share of inheritances shall be cut from the estate entirely.

如果遺產擁有人欲決定其合法繼承人,須在遺囑作出陳述或製成文件,並向民政事務處提交該等文件。這些人的繼承份額應完全從遺產中扣除。


If such disposal is made at the District Offices, an Original ID and a Copy, Copy of the House registrar, and 2 witnesses shall be presented at the district office. A Fee of 20 THB shall be paid with an extra 20 THB for maintaining such document.

如果此決定是在地區辦公室進行,應在地區辦公室出示身份證正本和影本、房屋登記影本以及 2 名證人。應支付費用 20 泰銖,並額外支付 20 泰銖用於維護此文件。


2. By Virtue of Law

依法

According to Section 1606, the Rightful Heir shall be automatically disposed of and deemed “unqualified” if the circumstances show that the individual is:

根據第 1606 條,合法繼承人應被自動決定並被視為“不合格”如果該個人是:


a. being sentenced on the crimes of intentionally and unlawfully causing the Estate owners or other rightful heirs in tiers before themselves to die;

因故意、非法致使遺產擁有人或其他類別合法繼承人過世被判刑;

b. accused the Estate Owner to received Death Penalties and later proved that such accusation is false;

控告遺產擁有人被宣布過世、後來證明為虛假;

c. knowingly that the Estate Owner is being killed, but ignore and refuse to report a such crime (this shall not be applied to the persons under 16 years of age, incompetent persons or the murderer is the spouses, parents, or child of such persons);

明知遺產擁有人被殺,卻置之不理並拒絕報案(不適用於未滿 16 歲者、無行為能力者或兇手為該等人的配偶、父母或子女);

d. willingly and intentionally threatens the estate owner to write the wills or prevent the amendments to that will and;

自願並故意威脅遺產擁有人寫下遺囑或阻止對該遺囑的修改,以及;

e. falsifying/destroying/concealing the part or entire will.

偽造/破壞/隱瞞部分或全部遺囑。


Forfeiture of Inheritances

拋棄繼承權


The Rightful Heir, by their wishes, can waive their right in inheritances by submitting the Forfeiture at the District Offices.

合法繼承人可以根據自己的意願,在地區辦事處提交文件拋棄其繼承權。


An Original ID, a copy of the ID, a Copy of the House Registrar, the Death Certification of the Estate Owner, and 2 witnesses shall be presented. If such persons is a minor, legally declared incompetent persons, or could not manage their own matters, evidence of Parents, Guardian and Curator and the Court’s Order shall be presented at the District Office as well.

應出示身份證正本及影本、房屋登記影本、業主死亡證明和 2 名證人。如果這些人是未成年人、依法宣佈為無行為能力的人、或無法處理自己的事務,還應向地區辦公室出示父母、監護人和監護人的證據以及法院的命令。


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