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Bankruptcy Proceedings in Thailand Part II 泰國破產程序 第二篇

Effect of a receivership order 破產接管的效力

When the court orders receivership whether which is temporarily or completely, it will have the effect following:

當法院下令的暫時或全部破產接管具有以下效力:

1. Transfer the possession of the debtor's property to the authority of the Receiver.

將債務人財產的所有權移轉給官方接管人的權力。

2. The administrative power of the debtor's property business rests solely with the Receiver.

債務人財產業務管理權完全由官方接管人掌握。

3. The debtor has the following duties:

債務人有如下責任:

3.1 The debtor shall, upon knowledge of the receivership order, deliver all property, seals,

account books and documents related to his property and business which are in his possession to

the Receiver (Section 23).

債務人應在知道接管令的情況下交付所有與自身財產和業務有關的財產、印章、賬簿和文件給官方接管人 (第23條)。

3.2 Must attends every creditors meeting or go to the Official Receiver to investigate the summons and answer the questions posted by the Receiver Creditors Committee or any creditor in connection with the debtor’s business, property or partner (Section 64) (this except for temporary receivership order).

必須出席每次債權人會議或前往官方接管人進行調查並回答破產管理人債權人委員

會或任何債權人就債務人的業務、財產或合夥人發表的問題(第64條)(臨時破產令除外)。

3.3 Must request the Official Receiver to determine the amount as his own and his family’s living expenses as appropriate to his status (Section 67 (1)).

必須要求官方接管人視狀況決定他和他的家庭的生活費用(第67(1)條)。

3.4 Every time the debtor is entitled to any property, he must report to the Receiver within a reasonable time (Section 67 (2)).

債務人每次有權獲得任何財產,都必須在合理的時間內向官方接管人報告(第67條第2款)。

4. The debtor is limited in certain aspects such as:

債務人在某些方面受到限制,例如:

4.1 The debtor has no power to act in connection with his/her property or business, unless the act is done according to the order or approval of the court, Official Receiver, the property manager or a meeting of creditors, as provided by the Bankruptcy Law (Section 24).

債務人無權就其財產或業務採取法律行動,除非是按照《泰國破產法》規定,根據法院、官方接管人、破產財產管理人或債權人會議的命令或同意進行(第24條)。

4.2 The debtor has no power to take civil cases in connection with the property. The Receiver will act instead (Section 25).

債務人無權受理與財產有關的民事案件。破產財產管理人會採取行動(第25條)。

4.3 The debtor cannot leave the Kingdom unless receiving written permission from a court or an escort officer (Section 67 (3)).

除非得到法院或押送員的書面許可,債務人不得離開泰國(第67條第3款)。

4.4 The debtor has no right to receive loans from any other person in the amount of one hundred baht upwards without informing such person that the debtor is under receivership or is bankrupt (Section 165 (1)).

債務人無權在未通知進行破產管理或破產的情況下從他人收取超過一百泰銖的貸款(第165條第(1)款)。


Composition in bankruptcy 破產和解

1. Composition Before bankruptcy-破產前和解

When the court ordered receivership, if the debtor wishes to apply for compounding before bankruptcy, the law requires the debtor to submit an application to the Receiver within 7 days from the date of submission of the clarification on business and property under Section 30, and may ask the protector to schedule a new time. When the creditors have passed a special resolution accepting the debtor’s proposal for a composition of debts, the debtor or the Receiver is entitled to apply to the Court for an order approving or disapproving it (Section 49). The composition in satisfaction of debts accepted by the meeting of creditors and approved by the Court binds all creditors with regard to the debts for which applications for repayment thereof are permissible but does not bind any creditor with regard to the debts from which the debtor may not, in accordance with this Act, be discharged by an order of discharge from bankruptcy, unless such creditor has consented to the composition in satisfaction of debts (Section 56).

法院下達破產命令時,如債務人希望在破產前申請和解,本法要求債務人根據第30條提交營業和財產澄清之日7天內向破產管理人提出申請,要求管理人安排新的時間。當債權人通過一項特別決議,接受債務人提出的債務和解建議,債務人或官方接管人有權向法院申請同意該和解的命令 (第49條)。滿足債權人會議並經法院批准的債務和解對允許應償還的債務具有約束力,對所有債權人具有約束力,但根據本法對債務人可能不承擔的債務不具有任何債權人的約束力,可以通過破產解除令解除,除非債權人同意債務返還 (第56條)。

2. Composition After bankruptcy-破產後和解

If the debtor’s previous proposal for a composition in satisfaction of debts failed to achieve a successful result, the debtor shall not propose a composition in satisfaction of debts within the period of three months as from the date on which the last composition in satisfaction of debts failed to achieve a successful result.

If the Court approves the composition in satisfaction of debts, the Court has the power to issue an order cancelling the bankruptcy and restoring the debtor’s power to manage his property or may issue any other order as it deems appropriate (Section 63).

如債務人先前提出的償債和解計畫未能取得共識,債務人不得在自該日起三個月內再次提出和解計畫。

如法院核准債務和解,法院有權發布命令或其他適當的命令解除破產並恢復債務人管理財產的權力(第63條)。

How to obtain debt repayment in a bankruptcy case 如何在破產案件取得返還債務

A creditor intending to have repayment of debt in a bankruptcy action, whether the plaintiff creditor or not, must submit an application therefor to the Receiver within two months as from the date of the publication of the absolute receivership order. But, if the creditor is outside the Kingdom, the Receiver may grant an extension of time for a period not exceeding two months (Sections 91).

打算通過破產行收到還款的債權人,無論是否為原告債權人,都必須在發布絕對破產令起兩個月內向破產管理人提出申請。但如果債權人不在泰國境內,破產管理人可以將時間延長不超過兩個月(第91條)。

Property for Repayment of Debt 償還債務的財產

The following property shall be deemed the property, in a bankruptcy action, distributable amongst creditors under Section 109:

根據破產法,下列財產應視為根據第109條可分配給債權人的財產:

1. All the property which the debtor has at the time of commencement of the bankruptcy, including claims exercisable over other persons’ property, except:

債務人在破產時擁有的所有財產,包括對他人財產可行使的債權,但以下情況除外:

1.1 Personal usage and necessary for living for the debtor, the debtor's spouse and minor children with reasonable conditions in life.

依狀況為債務人、債務人的配偶和未成年子女日常生活所需。

1.2 Animals, plants, tools and items for the debtor's occupation. The total price is not more than one hundred thousand baht.

用於債務人的動植物及工作所需工具和物品,總價不超過十萬泰銖。

2. Property which the debtor acquired after the start of bankruptcy up to the time of discharge from bankruptcy. It refers to the assets acquired after the court's receivership order until the bankruptcy case is over.

債務人自破產開始至破產解除時所獲得的財產。指在法院破產管理之後直至破產程序結束之前獲得的資產。

3. Possession or authority or order the disposal of debtors in the trade or the debtor's business with the consent of the true owner by circumstances, that show that the debtor is the owner at the time the debtor is asked to bankrupt.

在某些情況經真正所有人同意,擁有、授權或命令處置貿易或債務人業務的債務人,表明要求債務人破產時,債務人為所有人。

Cancellation of bankruptcy 解除破產

Cancellation from bankruptcy is cancellation of an existing bankruptcy away from the debtor or the bankrupt. As a result, the debtor is no longer required to be a bankrupt. Discharging from bankruptcy is one way to end the bankruptcy case. There are 2 cases of discharge from bankruptcy:

解除破產是指將現有的破產從債務人或破產人中移轉,導致債務人不再需被聲請破產。解除破產是結束破產程序的一種方法,有2個方法:

1. The Court shall issue an order of discharge under Section 71.

法院應根據第71條的法院命令發布解除令。

2. A natural person adjudged bankrupt shall forthwith be discharged from bankruptcy upon the lapse of the three-year period as from the date of the adjudication of bankruptcy under Section 81/1.

依第81/1條規定,當破產裁定日起3年期限屆滿,被判定破產的自然人應立即解除破產。

Consequences of cancellation bankruptcy 解除破產的結果

The order of discharge from bankruptcy has the effect of discharging the bankrupt from all debts of which applications for repayment are permissible, except:

解除破產的命令具有解除允許申請還款的所有債務,但以下情況除外:

1. Debts in relation to taxes, duties or goods taxes levied by the Government or a municipality.

與政府或地方自治體徵收的稅、關稅、或商品稅有關的債務。

2. Debt arising from dishonesty or fraud of the bankrupt or debts for which the creditors’ failure to make a claim is attributable to dishonesty or fraud in which the bankrupt has involvement or conspiracy (according to Section 77).

破產人欺詐引起的債務或債權人未提出債權是由於破產人不誠實或欺詐行為或陰謀(第77條)。

3. However, the court's order of discharge from bankruptcy has no effect of discharging from liability persons who are the bankrupt’s partners or bear joint liability together with the bankrupt or stand surety for or are in the same position as the surety for the bankrupt as well (according to Section 78).

但是,法院的破產解除令並不解除與破產人為合夥人或負連帶責任人與破產人的關係,或者對破產人具有擔保人地位或與破產人處於同一地位 (第78條)。


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