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Arbitration in Thailand Part I 泰國仲裁I

Type of Arbitration 仲裁種類[1]


1) In-Court Arbitration vs. Out-of-Court Arbitration

庭內仲裁 庭外仲裁


1.1)In-Court Arbitration is when a case is pending before court of First Instance, under the parties’ agreement, an arbitrator can be made with the approval of the court (Section 210-220 and 222 under Civil Procedure Code). But this method is not popular because when the case has gone to court, the parties do not want another person to help making decisions other than judge.

庭內仲裁是指當案件在一審法院等待裁定,在雙方同意下可向法院申請仲裁 《泰國民事訴訟法》第210至220和222條。這種方式並不受歡迎因為通常當事人不喜歡除了法官外由仲裁人作出裁定。


1.2) Out-of-Court Arbitration is in the case that the parties agree to propose a dispute to the arbitrator without prosecution, which may be agreed in advance before there is a dispute, or may be agreed after the dispute has been raised.

庭外仲裁是指當事人同意在不起訴的情況下將爭議提交仲裁員,可在發生爭議之前事先達成一致、也可以在發生爭議後達成一致。


Most of the international arbitration, including Thailand, is out of court which is subject to Arbitration Act B.E. 2545.

大部分國際仲裁案,包含泰國,都是庭外仲裁。泰國庭外仲裁由佛曆2545年《泰國仲裁法》管理。

2) Ad hoc arbitration vs. institutional arbitration

臨時仲裁與機構仲裁


2.1) Ad Hoc Arbitration is the case which the parties resolve to settle issues of the dispute by selecting an arbitrator, without involvement of any arbitral institution. The chosen arbitrator will judge the case.

臨時仲裁指雙方同意不透過仲裁機構、自己指派仲裁員處理爭議議題。被任命的仲裁員會裁定案件。


2.2) Institutional Arbitration is the case which the parties agree to settle their issues in dispute under an arbitral institution. Such institutions may only provide arbitration services in Thailand. There are three arbitral institutes in Thailand, which are Thai Arbitration Institute (TAI), Office of the Arbitration Tribunal of the Board of Trade of Thailand, and Thailand Arbitration Centre (THAC). There are also international arbitral institutions such as International Chamber of Commerce (ICC), American Arbitration Association (AAA), and specialized organization being adopted in Thailand such as SEC arbitration, Thai Bond Market Association arbitration, and NASD arbitration.

機構仲裁指當事人選擇一家仲裁機構裁定爭議議題,仲裁機構可能僅在泰國本地提供仲裁服務。泰國本土有三家仲裁機構,分別為泰國仲裁研究所(TAI),泰國貿易委員會仲裁庭辦公室和泰國仲裁中心(THAC)。國際仲裁機構有國際商會(ICC)、美國仲裁協會(AA​​A)、以及在泰國採用的專門組織,例如SEC仲裁,泰國債券市場協會仲裁和NASD仲裁。


3) Domestic Arbitration vs. Foreign Arbitration

國內仲裁與國外仲裁


3.1) Domestic arbitration refers to a dispute which is between native parties and is

without any “foreign-related” factors.

國內仲裁是指本國人之間的爭議,沒有任何“涉外”因素。


3.2) Foreign arbitration refers to a dispute handled by foreign arbitration institution.

國際仲裁是指由國外仲裁機構處理的爭議案件。


Followings are reasons dispute parties go for arbitration:

以下為當事雙方選擇仲裁的理由:


1) The duration of the process

處理時間

Any party can file an appeal if he doesn’t agree with a lower court’s decision, but the next petition is time-consuming. However, the arbitration process can be done quickly without complicated procedures (if settled within the arbitration).

如任一方對於法院的裁定不服可以上訴,但所需時間漫長。採仲裁程序時間短且沒有複雜的程序 (如果在仲裁時達成和解)。

2) The complexity of the case

案件複雜度


An arbitrator chosen by the parties is often knowledgeable and well-versed in handling dispute, who possibly can understand the dispute and the evidence quickly. This can lead to a fast and fair arbitration. On the other hand, if a case is handled in court, the parties cannot choose a judge who is an expert of the case, which will require experts and witnesses to testify and making the trial more difficult and more time-consuming as everyone needs to listen carefully to what the expert’s witnesses have said.

被推選的仲裁人通常對於負責的案件有豐富的知識及經驗,所以可以在短時間了解事實及證據。故仲裁案件通常不會花太久時間且效益佳。反之,在法院審理的案件,當事人無法選擇承辦的法官,所以需要請專家及證人作證。且因法官及當事人需專注聆聽專家及證人的證詞,使得案件審理較為困難及花較多時間。


3) Protect your reputation and privacy

保護個人名譽及隱私


In most cases, the judicial proceedings must be made openly, which means the public can attend court hearings and the mass media may easily access to the sources of the news. Subsequently, the news may adversely affect the business image and confidentiality of the trade secrets. However, the principle of the arbitral proceedings is keeping the case private, only the parties and involved people are eligible to be attended. It protects the reputation and business secrets of the parties.

大多數由法院審理的案件必須公開進行,這表示公眾可以參加聽證會、大眾媒體則可以較輕易的取得報導資料。報導的消息可能有損雙方的商業形象和揭露營業秘密。但是,仲裁程序的原則是將案件保密,只有當事方和涉案人員才有資格參加。它保護各方的聲譽和商業秘密。


4) Maintain the relationship between the parties

維護雙方之間的關係


The action of filing a law suit is tightening the relationship and the parties feel hostile. It is also like a long-term war because the case can be appealed to higher court, which may negatively affect their business relationship. But the arbitration process is a dispute resolution that allows the parties to face and negotiate the issues in dispute directly. The atmosphere during negotiation is more friendly and there is no system for the parties to argue and win. Thus, it enables the parties to maintain the business relationship as most of them will continue to cooperate in the future.

提起訴訟的行為使雙方關係更加緊張,因各方成為敵對關係;因案件可以上訴,也像一場長期戰爭,並對他們的業務關係產生負面影響。但是仲裁過程是一個爭議解決方案,使當事人可以直接面對和協商爭議事由。談判中的氣氛是較友好的,各方之間沒有辯論和也沒有勝方。因此,仲裁可使雙方維持業務關係,因為大多數人將來會繼續合作。


Arbitration law and procedure regulated by the Thai Bond Market Association

泰國債券市場協會制定的仲裁法及仲裁程序


When preceding an association's arbitration procedure, the Arbitration Law shall be adopted, which is Arbitration Act B.E. 2545, in accordance with the announcement of the board of the Thai Bond Market Association on Arbitration No. 2.

進行協會的仲裁程序時應採用泰國的仲裁法律,即佛曆2545年《泰國仲裁法》,為泰國債券市場協會第2號仲裁委員會的公告。


The Association's Arbitration Procedure

協會的仲裁程序


(1) People who have rights to propose

有資格提出仲裁申請的人

Such as members of association members and the parties.

協會成員以及當事雙方。


(2) Disputes that can enter into arbitration agreement

可以訂立仲裁協議的爭議

It must be a dispute arising out of or in connection with a contract between members or a member and a client.

必須是由成員間或成員與客戶間的合​約引起或與之有關的爭議。


(3) How to file a dispute

如何提起爭議

Submit a Statement of Claim to the association in the specified form

提交的起訴狀須符合規定的格式


(3.1) If the form is incomplete or unclear, the association will notify the petitioner to adjust it within 30 days from the date of receipt such notice.

如提交的表格未填寫完畢或不清楚,請願人須在收到協會通知30天內進行補正。


(3.2) If the form doesn’t need amendment, the association will send a copy of request together with various documents and evidence to the other party to submit a Statement of Defense within 30 days from the date of receipt of a copy of the dispute proposal.

如果表格不需修改,協會將在收到請願人的文件後30天內將副本及相關證據寄送給被告以提交答辯書。


(4) Mediation

調解

If one party wishes to have mediation by one of the association's arbitrators before starting the arbitration process, the association will ask the other dispute party whether to accept it within 15 days from the date of receiving the notice from the association.

如一方希望由協會的一名仲裁員進行調解,在開始仲裁程序之前,協會會請另一方在收到通知日起15天內決定是否接受調解。


If the parties do not accept within the requested time, the association will proceed with the arbitration procedures.

如果當事雙方在規定的時間內不接受調解,協會將繼續仲裁程序。


If the mediation is successful, a compromise agreement must be made and signed by

the parties. But if the mediation is not successful, the matter can be brought back to

arbitration process.

如果調解成功,必須達成和解協議並由當事人簽署。但如調解失敗,爭議事件將重新提交仲裁程序。


(5) Appointment and Opposition to Arbitrators

任命和反對仲裁員


(5.1)Appointment of arbitrator

仲裁員委任狀

There shall be 3 arbitrators to be the arbiter, containing one person selected by the Association's committee from the list of arbitrators, and two people appointed by the parties, who can be from the arbitrators list.

仲裁員應包含3名成員,其中一位由協會委員會從仲裁員名單中選出,另外兩位被當事人委任,被委任的仲裁員可從仲裁員名單選出。


(5.2) Challenge of arbitrator

申請仲裁回避

The parties may submit a letter of objection to the arbitration when there is reasonable doubt of justice within 15 days when knowing or should have known such situation. But the submission must be made before the date when the arbitrator closes the hearing.

當事人如合理懷疑司法公正,在知悉或應當知悉這種情況的十五日內可提出反對意見。但必須在仲裁員結束聽證會之日前提出。


(6) Consideration

裁定時間

The arbitral tribunal must complete the award within 180 days from the date of appointing the last arbitrator, unless he receives both parties’ agreement.

除非獲得當事雙方同意,仲裁庭必須在最後一位仲裁員任命之日180天內進行裁決。


(7) The Arbitrator fees rate of the TAI

TAI仲裁費


The parties pay as follows: 雙方支付的金額如下


(7.1) Fee at the rate of 1% of the disputed amount but not more than 10,000 baht.

費用為爭議金額的1%但不超過10,000泰銖。


(7.2)Arbitration compensation based on various rate according to the disputed amount as follows:

根據爭議金額,按不同費率進行仲裁賠償如下


Not more than 500,000 baht, the rate is 2.5% but not less than 10,000 baht.

不超過50萬泰銖,稅率是2.5%但不低於10,000泰銖。


500,001 baht - 1,000,000 baht, the rate is 2.0% but not less than 12,500 baht.

500,001銖-1,000,000銖,稅率是2.0%但不少於12,500銖。


1,000,001 baht - 5,000,000 baht, the rate is 1.5% but not less than 20,000 baht.

1,000,001銖-5,000,000銖,稅率是1.5%但不少於20,000銖。


5,000,001 baht - 10,000,000 baht, rate 1.0% but not less than 75,000 baht.

5,000,001泰銖-10,000,000泰銖,稅率1.0%但不少於75,000泰銖。


10,000,001 baht - 50,000,000 baht, the rate is 0.5% but not less than 100,000 baht.

10,000,001銖-50,000,000銖,稅率是0.5%但不少於100,000銖。

More than 50,000,000 baht, the rate is 250,000 baht.

超過5000萬泰銖,稅率為25萬泰銖。


In addition, in calculations, if calculated as a fraction, round up to the full amount.

此外,計算中如果按分數計算,四捨五入至全額。


(8) Deposit

支付仲裁費


The parties who go to arbitral tribunal shall place the security deposit, fee and compensation for the arbitrators in the amount determined by the board of directors within 15 days from the appointment of the chairman of the arbitral tribunal.

申請仲裁的當事人應在仲裁庭主席任命之日十五日內須支付仲裁員由董事會確定的保證金、仲裁費和賠償金。


(9) Request for Termination of Arbitration

要求終止仲裁


At any time from the date of submitting the dispute and before the arbitration award, a party or both parties may submit a request to terminate the arbitration process. The applicant has the duty to pay compensation and expenses incurred or in the case that the parties collectively petition, the person who is responsible for the payment of remuneration and expenses shall be determined.

從提交爭議之日起至仲裁作出裁定之前,任何一方或雙方均可在任何時候提出終止仲裁程序。申請人有責任賠償發生的費用和支出,或者在當事人集體請願的情況下,應當確定負責報酬和費用的人。


(10) Enforcement of the arbitration award

執行仲裁裁定


The enforcement of an arbitration award doesn’t relate to arbitration organizations. It is necessary to use judicial process to request the court to perform the enforcement of the award. Usually, the court will inquire whether the judgment is made correctly and opportunity for objection is only on the grounds stipulated by law. If the court thinks that the grounds for objection is not convincible and the award is actually made, the judgment will remain the same without judging the content of the deciding matter.

仲裁裁定的執行與仲裁組織無關,必須依司法程序要求法院執行裁定。通常法院會詢問判決是否正確,且只能依法提起異議。如果法院不被異議理由信服、並確實作出裁定,判決將維持不變,無需判斷裁決事項的內容。


Relevant laws 相關法令

- The Arbitration Act B.E. 2545佛曆2545年《泰國仲裁法》

- Code of Civil Procedure《泰國民事訴訟法》

- Announcement of the Board of Thai Bond Market Association on Arbitration

泰國債券市場協會仲裁委員會公告


Form 文件

- Statement of Claim 起訴狀

- Letter appointing an agent to proceed with the consideration代理人委任狀

- Appointment of arbitrator 仲裁員委任狀

- Statement of Defense被告答辯狀

- Challenge of arbitrator 申請仲裁回避

- Contract or agreement for settlement of disputes by arbitration

透過仲裁解決爭議的合約或協議

[1] https://tai.coj.go.th/th/content/article/index/id/8179 https://tai.coj.go.th/th/content/page/index/id/131609


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